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Cardiovascular Disease I
Title
Cardiovascular Disease I
Editor
iConcept Press
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USD$109.99
ISBN
978-1-922227-54-6
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37590

Chapter 7

Cardiovascular Disease I

The Roles of Novel Vasoactive Agents in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases: Good or Bad Guys?

by Takuya Watanabe, Hanae Konii, Kengo Sato and Fumiko Itoh

Viewed: 1178

Abstract

Coronary artery disease (CAD) arising from atherosclerosis remains the most common cause of death and morbidity worldwide. Macrophage foam cell formation and vascular smooth muscle cell (VSMC) proliferation in the arterial wall are the two main features of atherosclerosis. A number of vasoactive agents have been documented to exert vasoconstriction or vasodilation. We have investigated the modulatory effects of new novel vasoactive agents on atherosclerosis by cellular, animal, and clinical experiments. Potent vasoconstrictors, such as serotonin, angiotensin II and urotensin II, an inflammatory cytokine, cardiotrophin-1, and a potent hypotensive and bradycardic peptide recently identified by an in silico approach, salusin-β, have pro-atherogenic effects. These agents show the stimulatory effects on human macrophage foam cell formation and VSMC proliferation, and on atherosclerotic lesion development in an atherogenic model, apolipoprotein E-knockout mice; and are present at high levels in the circulating blood and stenotic or obstructive coronary lesions in patients with CAD. In contrast, an adipocytokine, adiponectin, a neuronal growth factor, heregulin-β1 (neuregulin-1 type I), an incretin hormone, glucagon-like peptide-1, and a salusin-β-related peptide, salusin-α, have anti-atherogenic effects mainly by suppressing macrophage foam cell formation mainly via down-regulation of acyl-CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase-1. Circulating levels of these peptides in the blood are markedly reduced in CAD patients compared with those in non-CAD patients. These findings indicate that good and bad agents for atherosclerosis with their extremely low and high levels, respectively, are candidate biomarkers for predicting CAD. Analogues of good agents or their receptor agonists and bad agents’ receptor antagonists could potentially serve as useful therapeutic targets for atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases.

Author Details

Takuya Watanabe
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, Japan
Hanae Konii
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, Japan
Kengo Sato
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, Japan
Fumiko Itoh
Laboratory of Cardiovascular Medicine, Tokyo University of Pharmacy and Life Sciences, Tokyo, Japan, Japan

Citation

Takuya Watanabe, Hanae Konii, Kengo Sato and Fumiko Itoh. The Roles of Novel Vasoactive Agents in Atherosclerotic Cardiovascular Diseases: Good or Bad Guys?. In Cardiovascular Disease I. ISBN:978-1-922227-54-6. iConcept Press. 2014.

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