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Coronary Artery Disease: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments
Title
Coronary Artery Disease: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments
Editor
iConcept Press
Price
USD$39.00
ISBN
978-1-922227-92-8
Clicks
6784

Chapter 4

Coronary Artery Disease: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments

Hemostatic Evaluation of Chitosan Derivatives: Effects on Platelets In Vitro

by Mercy Halleluyah Periayah, Ahmad Sukari Halim, Arman Zaharil Mat Saad, Nik Soriani Yaacob, Abdul Rahim Hussein, Ahmad Hazri Abdul Rashid and Zanariah Ujang

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Abstract

Chitosan obtained from the exoskeleton of arthropods such as shrimps and crabs, which are abundant in nature, has a potential clinical utility. Chitosan has become one of the most promising local hemostatic agents. It is of particular interest because it functions independently in platelets and normal clotting mechanisms. Although the study of chitosan in hemostasis has been the subject of intense research, to the best of our knowledge, only a few studies have been conducted on the effects of chitosan adhesion on platelet mechanisms. Therefore, this study was constructed to examine the hemostatic ability of chitosan derivatives in expediting the platelet activities to adhere, activate and aggregate towards blood coagulation processes. This book chapter proposes to provide the extended version of presently published content on chitosan activities towards platelet and blood coagulation mechanisms. Chitosan sponges with variable chitosan formulations: 7% N,O-Carboxymethylchitosan (NO-CMC) with 0.45 mL of collagen, 8% NO-CMC, Oligo Chitosan (O-C), and a powdered variety of chitosans termed O-C 53 with a degree of deacetylation of 75–95% were used. Fourteen donors were recruited in this study and provided informed written consent. This study was conducted using an automated hematology analyzer, scanning electron microscope, light microscopy, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, platelet aggregometer and coagulation analyzer. The results showed that O-C bound with platelets exhibited platelet activation, aggregation and clumps on the surface of the membrane layer with approximately 70–80% coverage. A statistically significant correlation (p<0.01) for the platelet count was identified between the baseline value and the values after 10 and 20 minutes. The results indicated that O-C and O-C 53 were able to promote clotting and have the potential to induce the release of platelets engaged in the process of hemostasis. The analyses successfully identified distinctions between the O-C and NO-CMC test groups and blood alone. The outcome of the study identified NO-CMC and O-C groups with compressive porous structures that are capable of supporting tissue and cell adherences via mechanical strength. Our findings also suggested that chitosan-derived biomaterials would be clinically useful for platelet activation to reach hemostasis. A novel O-C, either in sponge or powdered form, was discovered to induce expression levels of the platelet thrombogenicity cascade in vitro.

Author Details

Mercy Halleluyah Periayah
Reconstructive Sciences Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia
Ahmad Sukari Halim
Reconstructive Sciences Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia
Arman Zaharil Mat Saad
Reconstructive Sciences Unit, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Malaysia
Nik Soriani Yaacob
Department of Chemical Pathology, School of Medical Sciences, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia
Abdul Rahim Hussein
Advanced Medical & Dental Institute, Universiti Sains Malaysia, Kelantan, Malaysia
Ahmad Hazri Abdul Rashid
Industrial Biotechnology Research Centre, SIRIM Berhad, Selangor, Malaysia
Zanariah Ujang
Industrial Biotechnology Research Centre, SIRIM Berhad, Selangor, Malaysia

Citation

Mercy Halleluyah Periayah, Ahmad Sukari Halim, Arman Zaharil Mat Saad, Nik Soriani Yaacob, Abdul Rahim Hussein, Ahmad Hazri Abdul Rashid and Zanariah Ujang. Hemostatic Evaluation of Chitosan Derivatives: Effects on Platelets In Vitro. In Coronary Artery Disease: Causes, Symptoms and Treatments. ISBN:978-1-922227-92-8. iConcept Press. 2016.

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