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Coronary Artery Disease: Research and Practice
Title
Coronary Artery Disease: Research and Practice
Editor
iConcept Press
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USD$39.00
ISBN
978-1-922227-98-0
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7402

Chapter 4

Coronary Artery Disease: Research and Practice

Studies on Human Postprandial Thermogenesis

by Andrzej Wojciech Ziemba, Agnieszka Kozacz and Marta Steczkowska

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Abstract

STUDIES ON HUMAN POSTPRANDIAL THERMOGENESIS Postprandial thermogenesis is an important component (≈10%) of total human daily energy expenditure. Each ingested meal increases heat production and induces thermogenic effect. The magnitude of postprandial thermogenesis depends on age, body weight and the level of physical fitness. On the other hand, insulin and adrenergic stimulation are the primary metabolic factors involved in postprandial thermogenesis. The relationships between those factors are complex and interdependent, moreover, they may be modified by hormonal status (i.e hypothyroidism) or type of diet. The aim of the study was 1) to assess the role of biological and metabolic factors in the glucose-induced thermogenesis in males and females of different age, body weight and physical capacity, 2) to evaluate glucose-induced postprandial thermogenesis in hypothyroid patients in comparison with healthy people, 3) to assess thermogenesis under conditions of carbohydrate in lean subjects adhered to fat rich diet for more than two years. Thermogenic effect of glucose administration in standard oral glucose tolerance test (TEG) is often used as a model to study postprandial thermogenesis (Energy expenditure was calculated using mean values of O2 consumption and CO2 production recorded before glucose ingestion and two hours after glucose load). Using both bivariate and multiple regression analysis it was found that: the thermogenic effect of glucose is greater in male than in female subjects, decreasing with age and body weight. This relationships may be due to physical fitness which is most potent factor which determines thermogenesis after glucose load. Noradrenaline plays a dominant role in regulation of the magnitude of glucose thermogenic effect. The role of adrenaline was not confirmed. Thermogenic response to glucose ingestion in patients with hypothyroidism was much lower than in healthy subjects. The obtained results have clearly showed that hypothyroidism associated with reduction in energy expenditure does not only occur in the case of resting metabolic rate (RMR) but also reduced TEG. On the other hand, the adrenergic response to glucose administration was markedly greater. It can be speculated that these changes are related to decreased insulin sensitivity and responsiveness to catecholamine action in hypothyroidism. RMR as well as the magnitude of thermogensis after glucose load were not different in subjects using standard western and fat rich diet, however, in the latter there was at least a twofold increase in adrenaline and noradrenaline plasma concentration in response to glucose.

Author Details

Andrzej Wojciech Ziemba
Department of Applied Physiology, Mossakowski Medical Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
Agnieszka Kozacz
Department of Applied Physiology, Mossakowski Medical Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland
Marta Steczkowska
Department of Applied Physiology, Mossakowski Medical Research Center, Polish Academy of Sciences, Poland

Citation

Andrzej Wojciech Ziemba, Agnieszka Kozacz and Marta Steczkowska. Studies on Human Postprandial Thermogenesis. In Coronary Artery Disease: Research and Practice. ISBN:978-1-922227-98-0. iConcept Press. 2016.

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