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Protein Purification: Principles and Trends
Protein Purification: Principles and Trends
iConcept Press

Chapter 3

Protein Purification: Principles and Trends

Analysis of Nitroproteome in Human Pituitary Adenomas

by Xianquan Zhan and Dominic M. Desiderio

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Post-translational modifications in a proteome are the key content in the field of proteomics because clarification of those post-translational modifications will reveal many molecular mechanisms of various physiological and pathological processes. Oxidative/nitrative stress-related protein modifications are extensively involved in tumorigenesis. Stable tyrosine nitration as a marker of oxidative/nitrative damage was performed in human pituitary and adenoma. This paper addresses the principles of nitroproteomics, isolation and purification of nitroproteins, mass spectrometry characteristics of nitropeptides and nitroproteomics, methodology used for nitroproteomics in pitutiary and adenomas, current status of human pituitary nitroproteomics studies, and future trends. Of them, the most important step for nitroproteomics is to enrich low-abundance endogenous nitroproteins from human tissues or body fluid samples before the use of mass spectrometry to determine the amino acid sequence and locate the nitrotyrosine sites. Protein domain/motif-based bioinformatics locates the nitrotyrosine site within the corresponding protein domains/motifs. Pathway analysis-based systems biology rationalizes each nitroprotein into the signaling pathway networks from a systematically global point of view. The future trends of pituitary nitroproteomics include use of quantitative nitroproteomics to discover pituitary adenoma-specific nitroprotein(s) and use of structural biology to solidly clarify the effects of tyrosine nitration on structure and functions of a protein because the goal will address the mechanisms and biological functions of tyrosine nitration in pituitary tumorigenesis and discover nitroprotein biomarkers for pituitary adenomas and targets for drug design for pituitary adenoma therapy.

Author Details

Xianquan Zhan
Key Laboratory of Cancer Proteomics of Chinese Ministry of Health, Hunan Engineering Laboratory for Structural Biology and Drug Design, National Local Joint Engineering Laboratory for Anticancer Drugs, Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, China, China
Dominic M. Desiderio
The Charles B. Stout Neuroscience Mass Spectrometry Laboratory, Department of Neurology, University of Tennessee Health Science Center, USA


Xianquan Zhan and Dominic M. Desiderio. Analysis of Nitroproteome in Human Pituitary Adenomas. In Protein Purification: Principles and Trends. ISBN:978-1-922227-40-9. iConcept Press. 2016.