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Research on Virology and Cytopathology
Title
Research on Virology and Cytopathology
Editor
iConcept Press
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USD$39.00
ISBN
978-1-922227-70-6
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13405

Chapter 10

Research on Virology and Cytopathology

Population-specific Immuno-evolution of HIV-Subtype A

by Syed Hani Abidi, Muhammad A. Raees, Farhat Abbas, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Marcia Kalish, Sten H. Vermund and Syed Ali

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Abstract

Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV) is capable of rapidly changing its genetic makeup in response to drug and host immunological pressures, which allows the virus to survive in its host milieu. The high rate of mutation in HIV is responsible for resistance against anti-retroviral drugs, and also for failures in designing effective anti-HIV vaccines. An added layer of complexity is that HIV is capable of evolving in a population-specific manner, likely driven by predominant immuno-genetics of the host population. HIV subtype A, within group M, has established itself in certain regions of the world including Kenya, Uganda, Japan, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Botswana, Belarus, Congo, and recently, Afghanistan and Pakistan. This subtype is relatively under studied in terms of the epidemic dynamics, and evolution of immunogenic epitopes. In this chapter, we will discuss how the changing population immune-genetic pressures might affect HIV subtype A epidemic dynamics, genomic variability and epitope diversity, and steer immuno-evolution of this subtype in new directions. (HIV) is capable of rapidly changing its genetic makeup in response to drug and host immunological pressures, which allows the virus to survive in its host milieu. The high rate of mutation in HIV is responsible for resistance against anti-retroviral drugs, and also for failures in designing effective anti-HIV vaccines. An added layer of complexity is that HIV is capable of evolving in a population-specific manner, likely driven by predominant immuno-genetics of the host population. HIV subtype A, within group M, has established itself in certain regions of the world including Kenya, Uganda, Japan, Azerbaijan, Belgium, Botswana, Belarus, Congo, and recently, Afghanistan and Pakistan. This subtype is relatively under studied in terms of the epidemic dynamics, and evolution of immunogenic epitopes. In this chapter, we will discuss how the changing population immune-genetic pressures might affect HIV subtype A epidemic dynamics, genomic variability and epitope diversity, and steer immuno-evolution of this subtype in new directions.

Author Details

Syed Hani Abidi
Department of Biological and Biomedical Sciences, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Muhammad A. Raees
Medical College, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Farhat Abbas
Department of Surgery, Aga Khan University, Karachi, Pakistan
Sarah Rowland-Jones
Nuffield Department of Medicine, University of Oxford, Oxford, UK
Marcia Kalish
Vanderbilt Institute of Global Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
Sten H. Vermund
Vanderbilt Institute of Global Health, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA
Syed Ali
Department of Biomedical Sciences, Nazarbayev University School of Medicine, Astana, Kazakhstan

Citation

Syed Hani Abidi, Muhammad A. Raees, Farhat Abbas, Sarah Rowland-Jones, Marcia Kalish, Sten H. Vermund and Syed Ali. Population-specific Immuno-evolution of HIV-Subtype A. In Research on Virology and Cytopathology. ISBN:978-1-922227-70-6. iConcept Press. 2016.

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