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iConcept Journal of Emerging Issues in Medical Diagnosis and Treatment
Title
iConcept Journal of Emerging Issues in Medical Diagnosis and Treatment
Editor
Eugenia Giannopoulou
ISSN
2309-3528
Publisher
iConcept Press

iConcept Journal of Emerging Issues in Medical Diagnosis and Treatment

Oxidative/Nitrosative Stress and the Lungs: Breathing at its Best

by Narendra Kumar Sah, Anit Lamichhane, Vijay Chaudhary, Rajesh Pandey and Surinder Kumar Aggarwal

Volume: 3 (2014); Issue: 1

Abstract

Living beings have evolved over the past two billion years through adaptation, to a high atmospheric oxygen concentration. Potentially damaging species (reactive oxygen and nitrogen species, ROS and RNS) arise as by-products of normal cellular metabolism and work as physiological mediators and signaling molecules. ROS/RNS that cannot be adequately counteracted by endogenous antioxidant systems can lead to the damage of lipids, proteins, nucleic acids and carbohydrates. The oxidative modifications of these biomolecules by toxic levels of ROS/RNS represent an extreme event that can lead to deleterious consequences comprising the “oxidative/nitrosative stress”. This concept provides a scenario to establish a common basis of ageing as well as the many pathological states. Increasing concern exists over the adverse effects of air pollution on human health. Epidemiological studies have shown a clear association between cardiovascular morbidity, decreased lung function, increased hospital admissions, mortality and airborne concentrations of photochemical and particulate pollutants. The pulmonary system is particularly vulnerable to ROS/RNS-induced injury because the lungs are continuously exposed to exogenous environmental pollutants from a wide variety of sources in the ambient air (cigarette smoke, mineral dust, ozone etc). Additionally, lungs are exposed systemically to ROS/RNS generated from xenobiotics compounds. As a consequence, exposure to wide range of air pollutants gives rise to oxidative/nitrosative stress within the lungs. And this appears to initiate responses that are particularly dangerous to susceptible members of the population. One of these responses is the influx of inflammatory cells to the lungs. These highly orchestrated events can lead to a second wave of oxidative/nitrosative stress in the lungs, since activated inflammatory cells mainly phagocytes, polymorphonuclear cells, alveolar, bronchial and endothelial cells not only involved in the generation of large quantity of free radicals but also participate in immune protection of the body, gene control, growth as well as apoptosis. Antioxidants are abundant in the various cells of the lungs, the lining fluid as well as the pulmonary microcirculation. The lungs adapt to maintain a redox balance and can respond to oxidizing conditions that threaten the structural and functional integrity of the lungs as observed in bronchial asthma, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), tuberculosis, acute respiratory distress syndrome, lung cancer etc. It is understandable why the lungs are so responsive to such threats, because they are the only organ exposed to the highest concentrations of oxygen that we breathe. The present review focuses on generation of ROS/RNS leading to oxidative/nitrosative stress, their interaction with gene expression and immune system, including its role in the pathophysiology of pulmonary diseases.

Author Details

Narendra Kumar Sah
Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Medical College & Hospital, Solan, India, India
Anit Lamichhane
Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Medical College & Hospital, Solan, India, India
Vijay Chaudhary
Department of Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Medical College & Hospital, Solan, India, India
Rajesh Pandey
Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Institute of Medical sciences & Research, Mullana-Ambala, India, India
Surinder Kumar Aggarwal
Biochemistry, Maharishi Markandeshwar Medical College & Hospital, Solan, India, India

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